The Chinese do not reveal too much information about their projects. It is no different in the case of the nuclear fusion reactor, i.e. a device that is to provide humanity with an unlimited source of energy for further rapid development and the conquest of space. This should not come as a surprise, as the Chinese want to become a world pioneer in this matter. The one who first masters the essence of nuclear fusion and obtains a large positive energy balance in his artificial Sun will gain power over our planet.
It may sound scary, but in fact humanity is waging wars among itself over access to energy sources such as oil, gas or coal. Nuclear fusion reactors are to allow countries that have them to produce cheap and environmentally friendly energy for development, which beats the head in terms of efficiency not only of fossil fuels, but also technologies for obtaining energy from renewable sources.
The Chinese have already had many successes with their fusion reactor. They trapped and kept in a magnetic field plasma with an electron temperature of as much as 100 million degrees Celsius and ions at the level of 50 million degrees, and obtained thermal energy at the level of 10 MW. They also initiated a nuclear fusion and produced a plasma with a temperature of 50 million degrees Celsius and maintained it for as much as 102 seconds. Now is the time for higher temperatures and much more effective materials.
The new reactor, called HL-2M, is located in laboratories in the city of Chengdu. The device is equipped with new magnets, based on the latest technology of high-temperature superconductors. The Chinese used inventions here that were created in their country just a few months ago. They can maintain a plasma temperature of as much as 200 million degrees Celsius, which is as much as 14 times higher than that prevailing inside the Sun. In this way, we will create an artificial Sun on the surface of our planet.
The thermonuclear reaction is a phenomenon that combines two lighter nuclei into the nuclei of heavier elements. The fusion releases enormous amounts of energy. It is the use of this powerful energy that is the goal of many countries. It should be emphasized here that such reactors are completely safe. Unlike nuclear reactors, the former combine elements, not their decay.
Hydrogen nuclei fuse to form heavier isotopes: deuterium and tritium, followed by helium. At the same time, an unimaginable amount of energy is emitted. Just one glass of water is expected to yield as much as half a million barrels of crude oil.
To fuse at all, the particles must be tamed under a strong magnetic field and at high temperatures. Chinese scientists intend to achieve a positive energy balance in their HL-2M reactor cinemascanner the first time in history, at a temperature of as much as 200 million degrees Celsius. So far, no one has managed to achieve such a temperature in a Tokamak reactor.
The first test of the HL-2M took place a few days ago. Scientists want to conduct further experiments of the device next year. Then we'll see what it can do. Let's keep our fingers crossed for changing the country's approach to sharing interesting information about its breakthrough inventions, which are designed to change our future beyond recognition.
Several countries around the world are currently working on artificial suns. One of the largest projects is currently being carried out in France. ITER is being built there, a European fusion reactor, which is to be ready in 2025. Then the tests will begin and will last for 10 years. Experts believe that ITER will be able to achieve a positive energy balance in the first half of the 1930s. Interestingly, scientists from the Polish Academy of Sciences are participating in the project.